|Dicasterium pro doctrina fidei|
The Palace of the Holy Office
|Formed||July 21, 1542|
|Headquarters||Palazzo del Sant'Uffizio,|
The Dicastery for the Doctrine of the Faith (DDF) is the oldest among the departments of the Roman Curia. Its seat is the Palace of the Holy Office in Rome. It was founded to defend the Roman Catholic Church from heresy and is the body responsible for promulgating and defending Catholic doctrine.
Accordingly, the congregation is still informally known as the Holy Office (Latin: Sanctum Officium) in many Catholic countries. By distinction, it was formerly known as the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Roman and Universal Inquisition[a] (1542–1908); the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office (1908–1965); and then until June 2022 the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF; Latin: Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei).[b]
Founded by Pope Paul III on 21 July 1542, the sole objective of the dicastery is to "spread sound Catholic doctrine and defend those points of Christian tradition which seem in danger because of new and unacceptable doctrines."
Its headquarters are at the Palace of the Holy Office, just outside Vatican City. The congregation employs an advisory board including cardinals, bishops, priests, lay theologians, and canon lawyers. The current Cardinal Prefect is Luis Ladaria Ferrer, who was appointed by Pope Francis for a five-year term starting 1 July 2017. On 1 July 2023, Francis named Argentine archbishop Víctor Manuel Fernández as prefect, to take possession of the office in mid-September.
On 21 July 1542, Pope Paul III proclaimed the Apostolic Constitution Licet ab initio, establishing the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, staffed by cardinals and other officials whose task it was "to maintain and defend the integrity of the faith and to examine and proscribe errors and false doctrines." It served as the final court of appeal in trials of heresy and served as an important part of the Counter-Reformation.
This body was renamed the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office in 1908 by Pope Pius X. In many Catholic countries, the body is often informally called the Holy Office (e.g., Italian: Sant'Uffizio and Spanish: Santo Oficio).
The congregation's name was changed to Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (SCDF) on 7 December 1965, at the end of the Second Vatican Council. Soon after the 1983 Code of Canon Law came into effect, the adjective "sacred" was dropped from the names of all Curial Congregations,[c] and so it became the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.
|1542||Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Roman and Universal Inquisition is established|
|1622||Pope Gregory XV writes a letter addressing the issue of priests abusing the confessional to solicit "shameful and dishonorable conduct". The letter is referenced in Sacramentum Poenitentiae (1741).|
|1665||The General Congregation of the Universal Inquisition, in the presence of Pope Alexander VII, reiterates that propositions by confessors to solicit or provoke sex from penitents are "alien and discordant by the Evangelical truth and clearly so by the sixth and seventh doctrines of the Holy Fathers" and are to be "checked, condemned, and prohibited. […] The Inquisitors of Heretical Depravity […] [should] seek out and proceed against everyone – every priest […] who has essayed to tempt a penitent."|
|1908||The Inquisition is renamed Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office by Pope Pius X.|
|1965||The Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office is renamed Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (SCDF).|
|1985||All dicasteries of the Roman Curia no longer use the adjective "sacred" as part of their title. The Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith becomes the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF).|
|1988||Pope John Paul II reaffirms the authority of the CDF on 28 June: "The proper duty of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith is to promote and safeguard the doctrine on faith and morals in the whole Catholic world; so it has competence in things that touch this matter in any way."|
|2001||John Paul II issues Sacramentorum Sanctitatis Tutela "by which are promulgated Norms concerning the more grave delicts reserved to the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith." It, again, reaffirms the CDF's responsibilities, expressing that it was necessary to define more precisely both "the more grave delicts whether against morals or committed in the celebration of the sacraments" for which the competence of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith remains exclusive, and also the special procedural norms "for declaring or imposing canonical sanctions."|
|2014||On 11 November Pope Francis sets up within the CDF a special body to expedite consideration of appeals by priests against laicization or other penalties imposed on them in cases of sexual abuse.|
|2015||Francis establishes an ecclesiastical judicial commission, which will have its own staff and secretary, to try bishops, which will work with other units of the CDF and with the congregation that has oversight over the bishop.|
|2018||Francis appoints three women as consultors to the Congregation, the first in its history.|
|2019||The Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei is merged into the Congregation.|
|2022||On 14 February 2022, Francis reorganises the CDF through the motu proprio Fidem servare, dividing it into two departments: a doctrinal section and a disciplinary section, each with its own secretary reporting to the prefect. The formerly independent marriage section is merged into the doctrinal section.|
|2022||On 5 June 2022, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith is renamed the Dicastery for the Doctrine of the Faith as part of the restructuring of the Roman Curia by the apostolic constitution Praedicate evangelium. At the same time the Pontifical Commission for the Protection of Minors became part of this Dicastery, operating with its own staff and according to its own norms.|
|Part of a series on the|
According to the 1988 Apostolic Constitution on the Roman Curia, Pastor bonus, article 48, promulgated by John Paul II: "The proper duty of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith is to promote and safeguard the doctrine on faith and morals in the whole Catholic world; so it has competence in things that touch this matter in any way."
This includes investigations into grave delicts, i.e., acts which the Catholic Church considers as being the most serious crimes: crimes against the Eucharist and against the sanctity of the Sacrament of Penance, and crimes against the sixth Commandment ("Thou shall not commit adultery.") committed by a cleric against a person under the age of eighteen. These crimes, in Sacramentorum sanctitatis tutela a motu proprio of 2001, come under the competency of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. In effect, it is the "promoter of justice" which deals with, among other things, the question of priests accused of paedophilia.[d]
On 7 December 2021, Pope Francis promulgated a new version of the "Norms on the Delicts Reserved to the Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith"; the original version had been first promulgated in 2001 by John Paul II and amended in 2010 by Benedict XVI. The changes of the new version concern "harmonising the norms with the revised Book VI of the Code of Canon Law, which was promulgated in May 2021" and adding "numerous normative measures of various kinds issued in previous years, especially since 2016."
Until 1968, the pope held the title of prefect and appointed a cardinal to preside over the meetings, first as Secretary, then as Pro-Prefect.
Since 1968, the Cardinal head of the dicastery has borne the title of Prefect and the title of Secretary refers to the second highest-ranking officer of the Congregation. As of 2012 the Congregation had a membership of 18 cardinals and a smaller number of non-cardinal bishops, a staff of 38 (clerical and lay) and 26 consultors.
The work of the CDF is divided into two sections, the doctrinal and the disciplinary. The CDF holds biennial plenary assemblies, and issues documents on doctrinal, disciplinary, and sacramental questions that occasionally include notifications concerning writings by Catholic theologians.
Recent canonical judgments and publications
|Part of a series on the|
|Canon law of the|
The following is a list of recent documents and judgments issued by the CDF. Lengthy CDF documents usually have Latin titles. A short document that briefly states objections to one or more writings by a Catholic theologian is typically called a "notification".
"Responsum of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith to a dubium regarding the blessing of the unions of persons of the same sex", wherein the Church reaffirmed the view that "Church does not have, and cannot have, the power to bless unions of persons of the same sex" (15 March 2021).
- Redemptorist Fr. Tony Flannery is required to sign four fidelity oaths or not return to ministry (1 October 2020).
- "Doctrinal Assessment of the Leadership Conference of Women Religious" (re-affirmed by Pope Francis on 15 April 2013)
- Dignitas Personae (on bioethical questions, with summary and press conference transcript; 8 September 2008)
- On 5 April 2008, as a result of "grave reservations" by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith about the Mormon practice of posthumous rebaptism, Catholic dioceses throughout the world were directed not to give information in parish registers to the Mormons' Genealogical Society of Utah for microfilming or digitizing.
- On 28 September 2007, Gaston Hebert, the then apostolic administrator of the Diocese of Little Rock, stated that (per the 11 July Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith) six Arkansas nuns were excommunicated for heresy (the first in the diocese's 165-year history). They refused to recant the doctrines of the Community of the Lady of All Nations (Army of Mary). The nuns are members of the Good Shepherd Monastery of Our Lady of Charity and Refuge in Hot Springs. Sister Mary Theresa Dionne, 82, one of the six, said they will still live at the convent property, which they own. The sect believes that its 86-year-old founder, Marie Paule Giguere, is the reincarnation of the Virgin Mary.
- In an April 2007 address to chaplains, Archbishop Amato denounced same-sex marriage and abortion and criticized the Italian media's coverage of them, saying that they are evils "that remain almost invisible" due to media presentation of them as "expression of human progress".
- "Notification on the works of the Reverend Father Jon Sobrino, SJ" (with an explanatory note; 26 November 2006)
- "Notification regarding the book Jesus Symbol of God of the Reverend Father Roger Haight, SJ"
- "Letter to the Bishops of the Catholic Church on the collaboration of men and women in the Church and in the world" (31 May 2004)
- "Doctrinal Note on some questions regarding the participation of Catholics in political life" (with two commentaries from Cardinals Joachim Meisner and Giacomo Biffi; 24 November 2002)
- "Considerations Regarding Proposals to Give Legal Recognition to Unions Between Homosexual Persons" (3 June 2003)
- "Note on the Force of the Doctrinal Decrees Concerning the Thought and Work of the Reverend Father Antonio Rosmini Serbati" (1 July 2001)
- "Notification on the book Toward a Christian Theology of Religious Pluralism by the Reverend Father Jacques Dupuis, SJ" (with commentary; 24 January 2001)
- "Notification concerning some writings of Professor Dr. Reinhard Messner" (30 November 2000)
- Dominus Iesus (Declaration on the unicity and salvific universality of Jesus Christ and the Church; with comments from Congregation officials; 6 August 2000)
- "Notification regarding Sister Jeannine Gramick, SSND, and the Reverend Father Robert Nugent, SDS"
- "Considerations on The Primacy of the Successor of Peter in the mystery of the Church" (31 October 1998)
- "Notification concerning the writings of the Reverend Father Anthony De Mello, SJ" (24 June 1998)
- "Notification concerning the text Mary and Human Liberation by the Reverend Father Tissa Balasuriya, OMI" (2 January 1997)
- "Notification on the writings and activities of Mrs. Vassula Ryden" (6 October 1995)
- "Decree on the doctrine and customs of the Association Opus Angelorum" (6 June 1992)
- Orationis formas (Letter to the Bishops of the Catholic Church on some aspects of Christian meditation; 15 October 1989)
- "Note regarding the moral rule of Humanae vitae (Pope Paul VI's encyclical, On the Regulation and Control of Human Birth) and the pastoral duty" (16 February 1989)
- "Observation of the Anglican-Roman Catholic International Commission (ARCIC) II's Salvation and the Church" (18 November 1988)
- "Formula to be used for the profession of faith and for the oath of fidelity to assume an office to be exercised in the name of the Church" (1 July 1988)
- Donum vitae (Instruction on respect for life in its origin and on the dignity of procreation; 22 February 1987)
- Homosexualitatis problema (Letter to the Bishops of the Catholic Church on the Pastoral Care of Homosexual Persons; 1 October 1986)
- "Notification on the book Pleidooi voor mensen in de Kerk (Nelissen, Baarn 1985) by the Reverend Father Professor Edward Schillebeeckx, OP" (15 September 1986)
- "Letter to György Bulányi on certain writings attributed to him" (1 September 1986)
- "Notification on the book Church: Charism and Power: Essay on Militant Ecclesiology by Leonardo Boff, OFM" (11 March 1985)
|Cardinal Prefect of Dicastery for the Doctrine of the Faith|
|Dicastery for the Doctrine of the Faith|
|Member of||Roman Curia|
|Reports to||The Pope|
|Term length||Five years, renewable|
|Constituting instrument||Licet ab initio|
|Formation||21 July 1542|
|First holder||Antonio Michele Ghislieri|
Secretaries until 1965
When the Supreme Sacred Congregation for the Roman and Universal Inquisition was first established in 1542, it was composed of several Cardinal Inquisitors styled as "Inquisitors-General", who were formally equal to each other, even if some of them were clearly dominant (e.g. Cardinal Gian Pietro Carafa from 1542, who was elected Pope Paul IV in 1555). Until 1968 the Pope himself presided over the Congregation. However, from 1564 the daily administration of the affairs of the Congregation was entrusted to the Cardinal Secretary.: 19–26 This model was retained when the Inquisition was formally renamed as the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office in 1908.
Unless stated otherwise, the term of office ended with the officeholder's death.
|1||Antonio Michele Ghislieri
(elected as Pope Pius V; later canonized in 1712): 118
|2||Giacomo Savelli: 118||31 July 1577||5 December 1587||Gregory XIII|
|3||Giulio Antonio Santori: 118||5 December 1587||9 May 1602||Sixtus V|
(elected as Pope Paul V): 118
|9 June 1603||16 May 1605||Clement VIII|
|5||Pompeio Arrigoni: 118||16 May 1605||4 April 1616||Paul V|
|6||Giovanni Garzia Millini||4 April 1616||2 October 1629: 118|
|7||Antonio Marcello Barberini||2 October 1629||1 December 1633||Urban VIII|
|8||Francesco Barberini||1 December 1633||10 December 1679|
|9||Cesare Facchinetti||10 December 1679||31 January 1683||Innocent XI|
|10||Alderano Cybo||31 January 1683||22 July 1700|
|11||Galeazzo Marescotti||22 July 1700||1 January 1716||Innocent XII|
|12||Fabrizio Spada||1 January 1716||15 June 1717||Clement XI|
|13||Nicolò Acciaioli||15 June 1717||23 February 1719|
|14||Francesco del Giudice||25 February 1719||10 October 1725|
|15||Fabrizio Paolucci||10 October 1725||12 June 1726||Benedict XIII|
|16||Pietro Ottoboni||14 June 1726||29 February 1740|
|17||Tommaso Ruffo||29 August 1740||16 February 1753||Benedict XIV|
|18||Neri Maria Corsini||26 February 1753||6 December 1770|
|19||Giovanni Francesco Stoppani||12 December 1770||18 November 1774||Clement XIV|
|20||Luigi Maria Torregiani||22 February 1775||6 January 1777||Pius VI|
|21||Carlo Rezzonico||17 January 1777||26 January 1799|
|22||Leonardo Antonelli||8 November 1800||23 January 1811||Pius VII|
|23||Giulio Maria della Somaglia||20 May 1814||2 April 1830|
|24||Bartolomeo Pacca||5 April 1830||19 April 1844||Pius VIII|
|25||Vincenzo Macchi||25 April 1844||30 September 1860||Gregory XVI|
|26||Costantino Patrizi Naro||10 October 1860||17 December 1876||Pius IX|
|27||Prospero Caterini||21 December 1876||28 October 1881|
|28||Antonio Maria Panebianco||30 March 1882||25 January 1883||Leo XIII|
|29||Luigi Maria Bilio, CRSP||25 January 1883||30 January 1884|
|30||Raffaele Monaco La Valletta||15 February 1884||14 July 1896|
|31||Lucido Maria Parocchi||5 August 1896||15 January 1903|
|32||Serafino Vannutelli||16 January 1903||30 December 1908[e]|
|33||Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro||30 December 1908||16 December 1913||Pius X|
|34||Domenico Ferrata||3 January 1914||10 October 1914|
|35||Rafael Merry del Val
(cause for canonization opened in 1953; titled Servant of God accordingly)
|14 October 1914||26 February 1930||Benedict XV|
|36||Donato Sbarretti||4 July 1930||1 April 1939||Pius XI|
|37||Francesco Marchetti-Selvaggiani||30 April 1939||13 January 1951|
|38||Giuseppe Pizzardo||16 February 1951||12 October 1959||Pius XII|
|39||Alfredo Ottaviani||7 November 1959||7 December 1965||John XXIII|
Prefects since 1965
When Pope Paul VI changed the name of the dicastery on 7 December 1965, he changed the title of the cardinal in charge of the daily administration of the Congregation from Secretary to Pro-Prefect. He continued to reserve the title of Prefect to himself until 1968 when he relinquished his role as head of the Congregation and named a Prefect.
|7 December 1965||6 January 1968||Paul VI|
|8 January 1968[g]||25 November 1981|
(elected as Pope Benedict XVI)
|25 November 1981||2 April 2005[h]||John Paul II|
|13 May 2005||2 July 2012||Benedict XVI|
|5||Gerhard Ludwig Müller
|2 July 2012||2 July 2017|
|6||Luis Ladaria Ferrer, SJ
|2 July 2017||1 July 2023||Francis|
|7||Víctor Manuel Fernández||TBA|
Secretaries since 1965
With the December 1965 reorganization of the Holy Office as the Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, the head of the Congregation was no longer titled Secretary. The dicastery's second-in-command, until then titled assessor, was then given the title of Secretary, as was already the case with the other Roman Congregations. All but the most recent have been made archbishops upon their appointment. The following have held the title of Secretary:
- Pietro Parente (7 December 1965 – 29 June 1967)
- Paul-Pierre Philippe, O.P. (29 June 1967 – 6 March 1973)
- Jean Jérôme Hamer, O.P. (14 June 1973 – 8 April 1984)
- Alberto Bovone (5 April 1984 – 13 June 1995)
- Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B. (13 June 1995 – 10 December 2002)
- Angelo Amato, S.D.B. (19 December 2002 – 9 July 2008)
- Luis Ladaria Ferrer, S.J. (9 July 2008 – 2 July 2017)
- Giacomo Morandi (18 July 2017 – 10 January 2022)
- John Joseph Kennedy (Disciplinary Section) and Armando Matteo (Doctrinal Section) (23 April 2022 – present)
- Cardinal-Prefect: Luis Ladaria Ferrer, S.J.
- Secretary for Discipline: John Joseph Kennedy
- Secretary for Doctrine: Armando Matteo
- Adjunct Secretary: Archbishop Joseph Augustine Di Noia, O.P.
- Adjunct Secretary: Archbishop Charles Scicluna
- Undersecretary: Fr. Matteo Visioli
- Undersecretary: Fr. Philippe Curbelié
- Promoter of Justice: Fr. Robert J. Geisinger S.J.
- 27 members
- 28 Consultors (religious superiors and canon lawyers)
- Staff of 33 lay theologians
- Index Librorum Prohibitorum
- Archive of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
- Strengthening Church Members Committee, a Mormon organization which serves a similar role
- The names "Roman Inquisition" or "Holy Inquisition" arose from this name, terms later popularly used in reference to the 16th-century tribunals against heresy.
- Pope Francis reorganized the Curia with his apostolic constitution on the Roman Curia, titled Praedicate evangelium ("Preach the gospel"), which took effect on 5 June 2022.
- It remained in use throughout 1984, as can be seen in the Acta Apostolicae Sedis of that year, but no longer appeared in the 1985 issues of that official bulletin of the Holy See.
- The revision of Norms concerning the more grave delicts reserved to the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith currently in force is the revision approved by Benedict XVI in 2010[update].
- Cardinal Alfredo Ottaviani, previously Secretary, continued to head the Congregation when it was renamed on 7 December 1965, and his title of Pro-Prefect was confirmed on 8 February 1966. Upon his retirement he was termed Prefect emeritus of the Congregation, and not Pro-Prefect emeritus.
- Since the appointment of Šeper in 1968, the head of the dicastery has the title of Prefect. The Pope no longer holds the office of Prefect of the CDF himself.
- Death of Pope John Paul II
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- John Paul II (30 April 2001). "Sacramentorum sanctitatis tutela". vatican.va. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
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- O'Connell, Gerard (21 April 2018). "Pope Francis appoints three women as consultants to the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith". America. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- "Lettera Apostolica in forma di Motu proprio circa la Pontificia Commissione "Ecclesia Dei"". press.vatican.va. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
- Allen, Elise Ann (14 February 2022). "Pope restructures Vatican doctrinal office". Crux. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
- Pope Francis. "Praedicate Evangelium, sulla Curia Romana e il suo servizio alla Chiesa nel Mondo (19 marzo 2022)". Dicastero per la Comunicazione - Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Article 69. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
- Pope Francis. "Praedicate Evangelium, sulla Curia Romana e il suo servizio alla Chiesa nel Mondo (19 marzo 2022)". Dicastero per la Comunicazione - Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Article 78. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
- Scicluna, Charles (13 March 2010). "Promoter of justice at Doctrine of Faith on paedophilia" (Interview). Interviewed by Gianni Cardinale of Avvenire. Vatican City: Vatican Information Service. VIS 20100313 (2070). Translated from "Il «pm» vaticano: «Chiesa rigorosa sulla pedofilia»". Avvenire (in Italian) (Milan, IT: Avvenire Nuova Editoriale Italiana S.p.a.). 13 March 2010.
- Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. "The norms of the motu proprio 'Sacramentorum sanctitatis tutela' (2001): historical introduction". vatican.va. Archived from the original on 20 December 2015. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
- Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (21 May 2010). "A brief introduction to the modifications made in the Normae de gravioribus delictis, reserved to the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith". vatican.va. Archived from the original on 29 December 2015. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
- Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (21 May 2010). "[Norms concerning the more grave delicts reserved to the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith]". vatican.va (2010 rev. ed.). Archived from the original on 20 December 2015. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
- Pope Francis. "Praedicate Evangelium, sulla Curia Romana e il suo servizio alla Chiesa nel Mondo (19 marzo 2022)". Dicastero per la Comunicazione - Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Article 77. Retrieved 11 June 2022.
- "Pope Francis updates norms on more serious ecclesiastical crimes". Vatican News. 7 December 2021. Archived from the original on 7 December 2021.
- Annuario Pontificio 2012 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, ISBN 978-88-209-8722-0), pp. 1159–1160
- "The Holy See – The Roman Curia – Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith". www.vatican.va. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
- "Responsum of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith to a dubium regarding the blessing of the unions of persons of the same sex". press.vatican.va. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
- "Holy See: The Church cannot bless same-sex unions". Vatican News. 15 March 2021. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
- "Pope Francis' LGBT+ views, as Vatican opposes same-sex blessings". Reuters. 16 March 2021. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
- "Fidelity oaths spark fear of return to theological silencing". National Catholic Reporter. 1 October 2020. Retrieved 2 October 2020.
- Pullella, Philip (15 April 2013). "Pope Francis reiterates 'radical feminist' criticism of US nuns' group". worldnews.nbcnews.com. New York: NBC News Digital. Reuters. Archived from the original on 18 April 2013.
- Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (18 April 2012). "Doctrinal assessment of the Leadership Conference of Women Religious". usccb.org. Washington, DC: United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015.
- "Vatican letter directs bishops to keep parish records from Mormons". 2 May 2008. Archived from the original on 13 May 2008.
- Hargett, Malea (6 October 2007). "Six Arkansas nuns excommunicated for supporting heresy: women operate Hot Springs day care". arkansas-catholic.org. Little Rock, Arkansas: Arkansas Catholic. Archived from the original on 24 March 2015.
- Pullella, Philip (23 April 2007). "Gay marriage evil, abortion terrorism: Vatican". Reuters. Archived from the original on 26 April 2007. Retrieved 23 April 2007.
- Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (24 November 2002). "Doctrinal note on some questions regarding the Participation of Catholics in Political Life". vatican.va. Archived from the original on 7 April 2003.
- "Considerations regarding proposals to give legal recognition to unions between homosexual persons". Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. The Vatican. Archived from the original on 13 June 2016. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. "Dominus Iesus". vatican.va. Archived from the original on 11 April 2013.
- Mayer, Thomas F. (2013). The Roman Inquisition: a papal bureaucracy and its laws in the age of Galileo. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-8122-4473-1.
- Black, Christopher (2009). The Italian Inquisition. New Haven [u.a.]: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-11706-6.
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- "Resignations and Appointments, 01.07.2023" (Press release). Holy See Press Office. 1 July 2023. Retrieved 1 July 2023.
- "Italian with Gregorian connection named doctrinal congregation's deputy". National Catholic Reporter. 18 July 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
- "Resignations and Appointments, 10.01.2022" (Press release). Holy See Press Office. 10 January 2022. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
- "Pope Francis names secretaries of doctrinal and disciplinary sections of CDF". Catholic News Agency. 23 April 2022. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
- "Pope taps sex abuse reformer for key Vatican role". Archived from the original on 13 November 2018. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
- Brockhaus, Hannah (14 September 2017). "Pope appoints new under-secretaries to CDF and Congregation for Clergy". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
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- "Pope appoints U.S Jesuit to post of Promoter of Justice". Vatican Radio. 9 October 2014. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
- Official website